عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Upgrading the epistemic context of modern science from mechanism to organism in German idealism allows Émile Durkheim to establish academic social science in France. The philosophical formulation of necessity and freedom (from Kant's dualism to Schelling's and Hegel's philosophy of nature) evolves in German idealism to the extent that it is possible to legalize the social affairs in the essential field of positivist science. Basic concepts and ideas of Durkheim's sociology, such as organic solidarity and division of social work, can be realized with the features of an organic approach such as a priori unity, internal consistency, and the necessity and legitimacy of the organic affairs, in a way that a prerequisite for understanding Durkheim's fundamental difference with English social science, as Durkheim repeatedly states, is to understand the quality of his thinking within the German tradition. Moreover, ethics, which prior to Durkheim, are independent sciences, are based on the organic approach to positivist science; therefore, the ethics of science is established with Durkheim.